Random Number Generators

class RandomNumberGenerator

The base class for all RNG objects, is declared in rng.h.

void randomize(uint8_t *output_array, size_t length)

Places length random bytes into the provided buffer.

void randomize_with_input(uint8_t *data, size_t length, const uint8_t *extra_input, size_t extra_input_len)

Like randomize, but first incorporates the additional input field into the state of the RNG. The additional input could be anything which parameterizes this request. Not all RNG types accept additional inputs, the value will be silently ignored when not supported.

void randomize_with_ts_input(uint8_t *data, size_t length)

Creates a buffer with some timestamp values and calls randomize_with_input

Note

When RDRAND is enabled and available at runtime, instead of timestamps the output of RDRAND is used as the additional data.

uint8_t next_byte()

Generates a single random byte and returns it. Note that calling this function several times is much slower than calling randomize once to produce multiple bytes at a time.

void add_entropy(const uint8_t *data, size_t length)

Incorporates provided data into the state of the PRNG, if at all possible. This works for most RNG types, including the system and TPM RNGs. But if the RNG doesn’t support this operation, the data is dropped, no error is indicated.

bool accepts_input() const

This function returns false if it is known that this RNG object cannot accept external inputs. In this case, any calls to RandomNumberGenerator::add_entropy will be ignored.

void reseed_from_rng(RandomNumberGenerator &rng, size_t poll_bits = BOTAN_RNG_RESEED_POLL_BITS)

Reseed by calling rng to acquire poll_bits data.

RNG Types

Several different RNG types are implemented. Some access hardware RNGs, which are only available on certain platforms. Others are mostly useful in specific situations.

Generally prefer using either the system RNG, or else AutoSeeded_RNG which is intended to provide best possible behavior in a userspace PRNG.

System_RNG

On systems which support it, in system_rng.h you can access a shared reference to a process global instance of the system PRNG (using interfaces such as /dev/urandom, getrandom, arc4random, or RtlGenRandom):

RandomNumberGenerator &system_rng()

Returns a reference to the system RNG

There is also a wrapper class System_RNG which simply invokes on the return value of system_rng(). This is useful in situations where you may sometimes want to use the system RNG and a userspace RNG in others, for example:

std::unique_ptr<Botan::RandomNumberGenerator> rng;
#if defined(BOTAN_HAS_SYSTEM_RNG)
rng.reset(new System_RNG);
#else
rng.reset(new AutoSeeded_RNG);
#endif

Unlike nearly any other object in Botan it is acceptable to share a single instance of System_RNG between threads, because the underlying RNG is itself thread safe due to being serialized by a mutex in the kernel itself.

AutoSeeded_RNG

AutoSeeded_RNG is type naming a ‘best available’ userspace PRNG. The exact definition of this has changed over time and may change in the future, fortunately there is no compatibility concerns when changing any RNG since the only expectation is it produces bits indistinguishable from random.

Note

Like most other classes in Botan, it is not safe to share an instance of AutoSeeded_RNG among multiple threads without serialization.

The current version uses HMAC_DRBG with either SHA-384 or SHA-256. The initial seed is generated either by the system PRNG (if available) or a default set of entropy sources. These are also used for periodic reseeding of the RNG state.

HMAC_DRBG

HMAC DRBG is a random number generator designed by NIST and specified in SP 800-90A. It seems to be the most conservative generator of the NIST approved options.

It can be instantiated with any HMAC but is typically used with SHA-256, SHA-384, or SHA-512, as these are the hash functions approved for this use by NIST.

HMAC_DRBG’s constructors are:

class HMAC_DRBG
HMAC_DRBG(std::unique_ptr<MessageAuthenticationCode> prf, RandomNumberGenerator &underlying_rng, size_t reseed_interval = BOTAN_RNG_DEFAULT_RESEED_INTERVAL, size_t max_number_of_bytes_per_request = 64 * 1024)

Creates a DRBG which will automatically reseed as required by making calls to underlying_rng either after being invoked reseed_interval times, or if use of fork system call is detected.

You can disable automatic reseeding by setting reseed_interval to zero, in which case underlying_rng will only be invoked in the case of fork.

The specification of HMAC DRBG requires that each invocation produce no more than 64 kibibytes of data. However, the RNG interface allows producing arbitrary amounts of data in a single request. To accommodate this, HMAC_DRBG treats requests for more data as if they were multiple requests each of (at most) the maximum size. You can specify a smaller maximum size with max_number_of_bytes_per_request. There is normally no reason to do this.

HMAC_DRBG(std::unique_ptr<MessageAuthenticationCode> prf, Entropy_Sources &entropy_sources, size_t reseed_interval = BOTAN_RNG_DEFAULT_RESEED_INTERVAL, size_t max_number_of_bytes_per_request = 64 * 1024)

Like above function, but instead of an RNG taking a set of entropy sources to seed from as required.

HMAC_DRBG(std::unique_ptr<MessageAuthenticationCode> prf, RandomNumberGenerator &underlying_rng, Entropy_Sources &entropy_sources, size_t reseed_interval = BOTAN_RNG_DEFAULT_RESEED_INTERVAL, size_t max_number_of_bytes_per_request = 64 * 1024)

Like above function, but taking both an RNG and a set of entropy sources to seed from as required.

HMAC_DRBG(std::unique_ptr<MessageAuthenticationCode> prf)

Creates an unseeded DRBG. You must explicitly provide seed data later on in order to use this RNG. This is primarily useful for deterministic key generation.

Since no source of data is available to automatically reseed, automatic reseeding is disabled when this constructor is used. If the RNG object detects that fork system call was used without it being subsequently reseeded, it will throw an exception.

HMAC_DRBG(const std::string &hmac_hash)

Like the constructor just taking a PRF, except instead of a PRF object, a string specifying what hash to use with HMAC is provided.

ChaCha_RNG

This is a very fast userspace PRNG based on ChaCha20 and HMAC(SHA-256). The key for ChaCha is derived by hashing entropy inputs with HMAC. Then the ChaCha keystream generator is run, first to generate the new HMAC key (used for any future entropy additions), then the desired RNG outputs.

This RNG composes two primitives thought to be secure (ChaCha and HMAC) in a simple and well studied way (the extract-then-expand paradigm), but is still an ad-hoc and non-standard construction. It is included because it is roughly 20x faster then HMAC_DRBG (basically running as fast as ChaCha can generate keystream bits), and certain applications need access to a very fast RNG.

One thing applications using ChaCha_RNG need to be aware of is that for performance reasons, no backtracking resistance is implemented in the RNG design. An attacker who recovers the ChaCha_RNG state can recover the output backwards in time to the last rekey and forwards to the next rekey.

An explicit reseeding (RandomNumberGenerator::add_entropy) or providing any input to the RNG (RandomNumberGenerator::randomize_with_ts_input, RandomNumberGenerator::randomize_with_input) is sufficient to cause a reseeding. Or, if a RNG or entropy source was provided to the ChaCha_RNG constructor, then reseeding will be performed automatically after a certain interval of requests.

RDRAND_RNG

This RNG type directly calls the x86 rdrand instruction. If the instruction is not available it will throw at runtime, you can check beforehand by calling Botan::CPUID::has_rdrand().

TPM_RNG

This RNG type allows using the RNG exported from a TPM chip.

PKCS11_RNG

This RNG type allows using the RNG exported from a hardware token accessed via PKCS11.

Entropy Sources

An EntropySource is an abstract representation of some method of gather “real” entropy. This tends to be very system dependent. The only way you should use an EntropySource is to pass it to a PRNG that will extract entropy from it – never use the output directly for any kind of key or nonce generation!

EntropySource has a pair of functions for getting entropy from some external source, called fast_poll and slow_poll. These pass a buffer of bytes to be written; the functions then return how many bytes of entropy were gathered.

Note for writers of EntropySource subclasses: it isn’t necessary to use any kind of cryptographic hash on your output. The data produced by an EntropySource is only used by an application after it has been hashed by the RandomNumberGenerator that asked for the entropy, thus any hashing you do will be wasteful of both CPU cycles and entropy.

The following entropy sources are currently used:

  • The system RNG (arc4random, /dev/urandom, or RtlGenRandom).
  • RDRAND and RDSEED are used if available, but not counted as contributing entropy
  • /dev/random and /dev/urandom. This may be redundant with the system RNG
  • getentropy, only used on OpenBSD currently
  • /proc walk: read files in /proc. Last ditch protection against flawed system RNG.
  • Win32 stats: takes snapshot of current system processes. Last ditch protection against flawed system RNG.

Fork Safety

On Unix platforms, the fork() and clone() system calls can be used to spawn a new child process. Fork safety ensures that the child process doesn’t see the same output of random bytes as the parent process. Botan tries to ensure fork safety by feeding the process ID into the internal state of the random generator and by automatically reseeding the random generator if the process ID changed between two requests of random bytes. However, this does not protect against PID wrap around. The process ID is usually implemented as a 16 bit integer. In this scenario, a process will spawn a new child process, which exits the parent process and spawns a new child process himself. If the PID wrapped around, the second child process may get assigned the process ID of it’s grandparent and the fork safety can not be ensured.

Therefore, it is strongly recommended to explicitly reseed any userspace random generators after forking a new process. If this is not possible in your application, prefer using the system PRNG instead.